Sunday, February 23, 2020
Although the dangers of smoking have long been recognized, people continue to smoke. Why has the battle against smoking not been - Essay Example On 29 September 2005, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that British Columbia could sue tobacco companies to recover health care costs for ill-nesses caused by smoking. In opposition to this rule, Rondi Adamson in his article Do We Really Want Private Decisions Regulated?, states," But just how much do you want your private decisions regulated by others, snitched-on by your neighbors or used by your government so they can make some money?". The point being that, people deserve to take control of their own life and be responsible for their own decisions, whether harmful or beneficial. He rightly argues that if this view is to be taken into account for making decisions, then even companies manufacturing a product as commonplace as potato chips should be sued, as even they are dangerous to health. This analysis makes the order of the Supreme Court sound rather dubious. Moreover, our government clearly exhibits double standards when it comes to eliminating tobacco products. It is a well- known affair that the government earns a hefty amount on an annual basis in the form of taxes which it imposes on the tobacco companies.
Friday, February 7, 2020
U.S nuclear weapon policy - Essay Example U.S nuclear weapon policy The reasons for retaining a triad, a product of very conservative estimates of what would be required to cope with a disarming Soviet first strike, are not discussed officially. The assumption is that a floor exists beneath which U.S. forces cannot be allowed to fall, but this minimum level is not necessarily determined by targeting doctrine or the political goals that the doctrine is meant to uphold. The question of which countries the United States will target with nuclear weapons in the future and under what circumstances is simply not articulated and certainly not clearly understood. According to some officials, this question does not require an a priori answer. The preponderance of U.S. strategic forces remains targeted at the former Soviet nuclear arsenal, considered an immutable imperative. Despite an agreement reached for the two sides to retarget their forces away from one another's territories a symbolic step it is emphasized repeatedly by defense officials that weapons could be rapidly retargeted if necessary. The targeting review conducted by the Bush administration purportedly generated plans that provided for flexible options for global application, including the ability to retarget weapons quickly to meet any contingency. More recently, plans have been discussed to target third world countries with highly accurate conventional forces as well. The vanishing Cold War nuclear order was the product of a need to deter aggression against NATO by superior Warsaw Pact conventional forces. NATO members were unwilling or unable to dedicate sufficient resources or to take the necessary steps to restructure their defense sectors to rectify the disparities in conventional capabilities. Nuclear weapons were a cheap way of maintaining a military balance. Outside of NATO, nuclear guarantees were extended very selectively to close U.S. allies who confronted proximate enemies allied with or part of the Soviet bloc. Insofar as these arrangements were considered legitimate, it was as part of a bipolar system in which the United States, Europe, and a few other allies were united in a defensive alliance, while the Soviet Union was seen as an expansionist power bent on global hegemony. With the exception of Russia and China, the current nuclear threat, to the extent it can be reliably defined, consists of a handful of states with small or fledgling programs and sometimes just immodest ambitions. This is not to belittle the dangers such states may pose to international or regional stability in the future. But the sudden elevation of third world powers to the status of ruthless enemies on a par with the Soviet Union bears further examination, especially since it is now becoming a principal rationale for retaining a U.S. nuclear deterrent. Part of the logic of this argument hinges on the notion that the Soviet Union was rational, valued its survival, and could be targeted effectively, whereas the nuclear powers of the future probably will not share these traits. Now this may questioned "Will our nuclear adversaries always be rational, or at least operate with the same logic as we do We can't be sure. Will we always be able to put our adversaries at risk to make deterrence work Not necessarily, particularly with terrorists whom we may not even be able to find." But if one is going to make the argument that U.S. strategy falls apart in the face of a third world
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Fire Prevention and the Federal Government Essay Many government agencies make fire prevention as part of their mission. America has the highest fire death rate is the highest in the world. Fires kill 3,700 and injure over 20,000 people each year. Property loss is about $11 billion per year. The United States Fire Administration (USFA) has helped to reduce fire deaths by half. They have contributed to fire prevention and suppression more than any other government agency. In 1974, Congress established the United States Fire Administration . Their mission is to provide national leadership to local fire and emergency services. It is a division of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). FEMA became part of the Department of Homeland Security on March 1, 2003. Their mission is to Ã¢â¬Å"reduce the loss of life and property and protect the Nation from all hazards, including natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disastersÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"About USFAÃ¢â¬ , n. d. ). The Department of Homeland Security was formed after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Their primary mission is to protect the country from terrorism. Since the USFA was created for the sole purpose of the prevention, preparedness, and response to fires and other emergencies, it has contributed the most to the cause. Ã¢â¬Å"AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s fire death rate is one of the highest per capita in the industrialized worldÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"About USFAÃ¢â¬ , n. d. ). Thus, it is still an improvement since more than twenty years ago. In 1971, 12,000 people and 250 firefighters died as a result of fires. USFA continues to make our communities and society safer today. Reference U. S. Fire Administration. About the U. S. Fire Administration. Retrieved August 3, 2008 from http://www. usfa. dhs. gov.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
In our daily lives, without even recognizing it, there are religious symbols present all around us. If we are carrying money, Ã¢â¬Å"In God We TrustÃ¢â¬ is a religious symbol that is present on our currency. If we happen to say the pledge of allegiance we are saying Ã¢â¬Å"one nation under GodÃ¢â¬ which alludes to God and the Catholic religion. Around the holidays, there are Christmas decorations present everywhere, which are religious symbols of the Catholic faith. None of these things seem bad or harmful to anyone in any way. They are not harming anyone. Are they? Well, they are not harming anyone directly, but have impacted people because it is through the presence of these symbols that neglects all other religions and is feeding into the issue of the ongoing church versus state argument for separation. Religious symbols are aspects of all different religions that strengthen faith, promote certain beliefs, and represent the fundamentals of that specific religion. According to FurstÃ¢â¬â¢s article on the use of physical religious symbols, Ã¢â¬Å"As beings that are both body and spirit, humans use symbols in order to perceive and to grasp realities that are not empirical. As social beings, humans use symbols to communicate with others,Ã¢â¬ (p 2). But, there are many issues that arise when these symbols are involved and existing in the media, the state, our government, and the public. Mainly this is because symbols are truly powerful and represent controversies that come along with different religions. Furst also states that, Ã¢â¬Å"symbols play a powerful role in the transmission of the culture of human society,Ã¢â¬ (p 2). If religious symbols transmit culture into society, then people in our society are going to pay very close attention to what symbols are present... ... Case may Determine Direction of Church-State Law." Church & State 62.10 (2009): 220-2. Web. Boston, Rob. "Prayers, Preaching & Public Schools: Religious Right Activists use Wide Variety of Tactics to Evangelize in the Classroom." Church & State 62.10 (2009): 223-6. Web. Furst, Lyndon G., and Stephen J. Denig. "The use of Physical Symbols to Transmit Culture in Religious Schools: A Comparison of Adventist and Catholic Schools in America." Journal of Empirical Theology 18.1 (2005): 1-21. Web. Stevenson, Dwight Eshelman. "Religious Symbols and Religious Communication." Lexington Theological Quarterly 1.3 (1966): 69-79. Web. "Wandering in the Desert: Justice Scalia's Dangerous Plan to Secularize the Cross." Church & State 62.10 (2009): 230-318. Web. Zenit. "Christmas Symbols Not Welcome in Many U.S. Classrooms " National Catholic Register 77.51 (2001) Print.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
One of the baseballÃ¢â¬â¢s most troublesome issues has been the increasing use of performance enhancing drugs. Retired home slugger, Jose Canseco has claimed that 85 per cent of big leaguers use steroids and Xen Caminiti, who died in 2004 from drug overdose, stated in a highly publicised article in Sports Illustrated that the incidence of steroid use has mushroomed to 50 per cent of active players. Although other players have stated this figure to be exaggerated, the problem has become widespread within major league baseball.A well known sports orthopaedist, Dr. John Andrews asserted that there has been a dramatic rise in muscle and tendon injuries among baseball players related to the increased use of supplements creatine, human growth hormone, and steroids (Teitelbaum, 2005, p. 107). The use of amphetamines in major league baseball gained substantial notoriety in 1970 when Jim Bouton, a pitcher for the New York Yankees during the 1960s and the author of highly controversial book Ball Four admitted using amphetamines and estimated that 40% of other players did as well.As with football, the size and strength of professional baseball players appear to have increased markedly during the last two decades. As a consequence, suspicions of anabolic steroid use have been dramatically soared during the last decade. In 1995, the general manager of the San Diego Padres admitted to the prevalence of steroid use in at least 10%-20% of the league players (Hinitz, Yesalis, Bahrke, 2002, p. 12-13). Jose Canseco, who was the first player to hit 40 homers and steal 40 bases in the same year, wrote in his book Ã¢â¬ËJuicedÃ¢â¬â¢ that he used steroids to help him build the muscles he needed to succeed.He also claimed that (although without proof) many players in the game had done the same. This cast grave doubts on the home run records set by Mark McGwire, Sammy Sosa and Barry Bonds and others. In 2005, the congress held a special hearing to investigate the steroid problem i n baseball. Commissioner Bud Selig while testifying admitted that the sportÃ¢â¬â¢s hands were tied because of a complicated agreement with the union that represented the players. Baseball was not allowed to test most players for steroids. Even for those who were exposed, punishment was light (Stewart, Kennedy, 2006, p. 61).Barry Bond, the legendary baseball player, shot to power and fame by winning three MVP awards in 1990s and he was recognised as the best all round player of the decade. He became the second 40-40 player in 1996, and narrowly missed the fit in 1997. In 1998, he became the first 400-400 player in history. 1 In 2000, the house belonged to Barry, who at the age of 35 was on the brink of a remarkable run of five career defining seasons. Up to that point, he had hit 445 home runs over 14 seasons of play. In 2000, he set a personal home run record with 49, and in 2001, he set a new all time record with an incredible 73 homers.The unprecedented late career explosion of 258 home runs in five years raised suspicions that Bonds had taken illegal performance drugs, such as steroids, which Bonds vehemently denied. In 2003, Bonds hits 45 home runs, which brought him within three of his coach MayÃ¢â¬â¢s mark on the 1. URL: http://www. baseballlibrary. com/baseballlibrary/ballplayers/B/Bonds_Barry. stm, retrieved on 15th Dec, 06 lifetime list. In 2004, Bonds chased his 660th career home run to join Mays as third on the all time leaders list. But he just fell short of Mays record. He admitted struggling with the notion of surpassing his childhood idol.Bonds openly admired his idol and said, Ã¢â¬Å"I love him so much. It is hard subject to talk aboutÃ¢â¬ (Linge, p. 178). Finally, in the fifth innings of the Giants home opener, Bonds achieved the fit and coach May expressed immense happiness that third place on the lifetime homer list was staying within the Giants family (Linge, p. 178). Currently, Bond has 734 home runs, 22 from breaking Hank AaronÃ¢â ¬â¢s career record of 755. He could play only 14 games in 2005 following three operations in his right knee, he came back in full force in 2006 to bat 270 with 26 homers and 77 RBI in 130 games for the Giants in2006.Although he had arthroscopic surgery on his left elbow in October, he still has potential power. 2 Beginning in 1998 with injection in his buttocks of Winstrol, a powerful steroid, Barry Bonds took a wide array of performance enhancing drugs over at least five seasons in a massive doping regimen that grew more sophisticated with passing years. These facts were published in Game of Shadows, a book written by two San Francisco Chronicle reporters at the forefront of reporting BALCO steroid distribution scandal.The Book revealed day-to-day detail of how often and how deeply Bonds was engaged in the persistence doping. According to the book, Bonds used the drugs in virtually every conceivable form, by either injecting himself with a syringe or being injected by 2. Retrieved from the URL: http://sportsline. com/mlb/players/playerpage/7447 on 14th Dec, 06 his trainer, swallowing pills, placing drops of liquids under his tongue, and in case of BALCOs notorious testosterone based cream, and he applied it locally.The authors compiled the information over a two-year investigation that included, but was not limited to, court documents, affidavits filed by BALCO investigators, confidential memoranda of federal agents (including statements made to them by athletes and trainers), grand jury testimony, audiotapes and interviews with more than 200 sources. 3 Bond while denying the charge of steroid use was rather vague in his denial statements. In one of his statement Bond was quoted as saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Doctors ought to quit worrying about what ballplayers are taking. What players take doesn't matter.It's nobody else's business. The doctors should spend their time looking for cures for cancer. It takes more than muscles to hit homers. If all those guys were using s tuff, how come they're not all hitting homers? Ã¢â¬Å"4 People from all walks of life, from baseball fan, players, and analyst reacted to BarryÃ¢â¬â¢s steroid controversy and the consequent BALCO trial. Baseball player Turk Wendell reacted in Denver Post, Ã¢â¬Å" If my personal trainer, me, Turk Wendell, got indicted for that, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no one in the world who wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t think that I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t taking steroids.What, because he is Barry Bonds, no oneÃ¢â¬â¢s going to say that? I mean, obviously he did it. (His trainer) admitted to giving steroids to baseball player. He just 3. http://sportsillustrated. cnn. com/2006/baseball/mlb/03/06/news. excerpt/index. html retrieved on 15th Dec, 06. 4. http://sportsillustrated. cnn. com/2006/baseball/mlb/03/06/bonds. quotes/index. html, retrieved on 15th Dec, 06 doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to say his name. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s clear just seeing his bodyÃ¢â¬ . 5 Journalists were although divided in their opinion regardin g the issue, majority were convinced that Bonds was guilty.Journalist George Will have expressed his view about Barry Bonds, his steroid use and its impact on the baseball statistics in the following lines. According to him, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"(Barry) Bonds' records must remain part of baseball's history. His hits happened. Erase them and there will be discrepancies in baseball's bookkeeping about the records of the pitchers who gave them up. George Orwell said that in totalitarian societies, yesterday's weather could be changed by decree. Baseball, indeed America, is not like that. Besides, the people who care about the record book Ã¢â¬â serious fans Ã¢â¬â will know how to read it.That may be Bonds' biggest worry. Ã¢â¬ 5 The group who sympathises with Barry Bonds feels that he is a victim of racial prejudice. They feel that even if it is true that Bonds takes steroids, the attention that he receives far outshines that of any other athlete under investigation in the same probe. W hat the allegations of steroid use imply is that Bonds had reached his achievements on the field unfairly, and given his reputation as an unlikable player, the sportswriters and fans intend to believe this allegation.Beyond his actual guilt or innocence in this steroid probe, the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in Bonds involvement with steroids goes beyond the fact that he is an accomplished baseball player (Bloom, 2004, p. 111). 5. http://thesteroidera. blogspot. com/2006/08/memorable-steroid-era-quotes-1995-2006. html retrieved on 15th Dec, 06 Considering the fact that Barry Bonds was a steroid user, which has been proven without doubt, he should not be allowed into the Hall of Fame. This is a case of cheating and deceiving the public who passionately follow the game.If he is inducted into the hall of fame, it will be tantamount to accepting his deceitful act, which will be detrimental to the future of baseball. Moreover, since Pete Rose was denied the hall of fame for his deceiving act , it will be justifiable if Bond is treated in the same manner. As his name is already tainted, it is unlikely that people will remember him, forty, fifty years from now. His unsporting conduct and violation of sports ethics will eventually obscure him from popular memory. Only those with excellent and untainted track record, moral integrity, and true sportsmanship deserve to be incorporated into the Hall of Fame.References Bloom, J (2004) Barry Bonds: A Biography, Greenwood Press, USA Hinitz, D. R. , Yesalis, C. E. , and Bahrke, M. S (2002) Performing enhancing substances in sport and exercise, Human Kinetics Publishing Linge, M. K (2005) William Mays: A Biography, Greenwood Press, USA Stewart, M, Kennedy, M (2006) Long Ball: The legend and lore of the home run, Milbrook Press, p. 64 Teitelbaum, S. H (2005) Sports Heroes, Fallen Idols, University of Nebraska Press. The Hastings Centre Report (1985) Blood, Sweat, and Drug: The high cost being number one, Vol. 15, No. 5. p. 2
Saturday, January 4, 2020
The intersection between globalization and local entrepreneurship, defined by specialists as Ã¢â¬Å"international entrepreneurshipÃ¢â¬ , has started to receive more and more attention over the last two decades (Mathews and Zander, 2007, p. 395). Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a significant role in the global economy and have a big impact on incomes, outputs, and the employment sector. The latest report of the World Economic Forum (WEF) stated that the main challenge for businesses, governments and individuals was the fragility and, at the same time, the flexibility of the economy. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t come as a surprise that small and medium-sized businesses in the UK, such as start-up manufacturers, sole traders, hair and beauty salons orÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The reportÃ¢â¬â¢s conclusion will also include critical evaluation, discussing possible recommendations and personal reflection. 2. Research Methods 2.1 Primary Research Method This type of research takes place by observing phenomena or surveying respondents. Primary data collection can be deemed as bespoke and therefore time-consuming and costly. This process is more lengthy and complex, it is typically costlier, involving experimentation, sampling, survey methods, and questionnaire construction. In this report, primary research was achieved by working closely with the owners of Dreadnought Pub, this included multiple face-to-face interviews, communication with the customers, people who have worked there in the past and everyone else related with the pub. Visiting the pub during busy times was very insightful as it resulted in analyzing the pubÃ¢â¬â¢s management style and the environment. With the help of DreadnoughtÃ¢â¬â¢s full disclosure, working closely with the owners helped in analyzing the existing business plan, current entries, and various other resources, which proved very helpful to our research method. 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